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Get Information. Open Access Review. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microscopic fungi, which commonly contaminate cereal grains. Contamination of small-grain cereals and maize with toxic metabolites of fungi, both pathogenic and saprotrophic, is one of the particularly important problems in global agriculture. Fusarium species are among the dangerous cereal pathogens with a high toxicity potential.
Secondary metabolites of Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota fungi, such as deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 are among five most important mycotoxins on a European and world scale. The use of various methods to limit the development of Fusarium cereal head diseases and grain contamination with mycotoxins, before and after harvest, is an important element of sustainable agriculture and production of safe food.
The applied strategies utilize chemical and non-chemical methods, including agronomic, physical and biological treatments. Biological methods now occupy a special place in plant protection as an element of biocontrol of fungal pathogens by inhibiting their development and reducing mycotoxins in grain. According to the literature, Good Agricultural Practices are the best line of defense for controlling Fusarium toxin contamination of cereal and maize grains.
However, fluctuations in weather conditions can ificantly reduce the effectiveness of plants protection methods against infection with Fusarium spp. Keywords: mycotoxins; Fusarium spp. Introduction Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microscopic fungi, which commonly contaminate cereal grains wheat, barley, oat, rye, maize and rice and cereal products, as well as other food products [ 123 ].
Animal feed is one of the main sources of mycotoxins. This topic is particularly important because toxins cause mycotoxicosis of animals and remain in food products obtained from infected animal organisms. Therefore, meat and its products, milk and its products and eggs may also pose a serious threat to human health.
Mycotoxins exert various effects on the human and animal bodies, among others they are mutagenic, teratogenic and estrogenic [ 123456 Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota. They also have a ificant impact on the economy because, in accordance with the provisions of the legal acts, the presence of mycotoxins at a certain level in the exclusion of agricultural crops, feed and food products from commercial trade [ 7 ].
This is evidenced by numerous literature references and reports of the European Commission [ 18910 ]. Secondary metabolites of these fungi, such as deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 are among five most important mycotoxins on a European and world scale [ 131112131415 ] The presence of these metabolites in the grain is the result of the development of Fusarium head blight FHB or scab.
Epidemic occurrence of this disease is the cause of ificant economic losses because infestation of he and panicles of cereals and maize by Fusarium spp. The level of contamination of cereal grain with Fusarium mycotoxins depends on many factors, among others weather conditions, cultivation system, method and date of grain harvest, as well as the degree of resistance of cultivated varieties to Fusarium spp.
Considering the above, great emphasis has been put in recent years on developing effective methods reducing FHB occurrence and contamination of grain, feed and food with mycotoxins, and especially on the application of non-chemical methods. Fungi of the genus Fusarium infest cereals cultivated all over the world, but the occurrence of individual species depends on climatic conditions, mainly on temperature and humidity [ 122324Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota ].
Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg is also considered a thermophilic species, and high levels of maize ear infection by this fungus and accumulation of fumonisin are often observed in hot and dry vegetation seasons [ 32 ]. Fusarium avenaceum Fr. According to various authors, F.
Grain is the primary inoculum source of fungi causing cereal fusariosis Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota 383940 ] and post-harvest residues remaining in or on the soil, where these fungi can survive in the form of saprotrophic mycelium, and some species also in the form of chlamydospores [ 17223841 ]. Weeds, which are the hosts of fungi of the genus Fusarium Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota, are an additional source of cereal infections [ 4243 ]. Simplified soil cultivation increases the amount of crop residues on the soil surface and le to an increase in the inoculum quantity of these fungi.
Hence, the widespread use of this type of cultivation minimum tillage system may be the reason for the increase in the level of Fusarium spp. Species of the genus Fusarium are the cause of pre-emergence and post-emergence death of cereal seedlings, foot rot and head blight. From a toxicological and economic point of view, Fusarium head blight FHB is the most dangerous disease, accompanied by mycotoxin grain contamination. Fusarium spp. Disease symptoms on infected head are visible during the milk maturity stage of the grain. Spikes infected by Fusarium spp. Pink or salmon-colored sporodochia with conidial spores, as well as mycelium layer, appear on infected chaff in spikes during persistent high humidity, after a few days of infection.
Dying of infected spikelets inhibits the development of kernels, which causes grain reduction in the spike. The remaining kernels developing in infected he are usually smaller, gray, shriveled, with a loose consistency and often covered with sporodochia and Fusarium spp. Damage to starch granules and changes in storage protein composition were observed in kernels infected by Fusarium spp.
The ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxin is a very important factor determining the harmfulness of Fusarium spp. Fusarium head blight FHB is one of the diseases causing the greatest worldwide damage to cereals, especially wheat [ 1317 ].
Oat panicles are often less affected by Fusarium spp. However, there are regions where oat panicle blight is a serious problem in favorable weather conditions, including Scandinavia [ 193552 ]. Several species can cause head blight, although F. In recent years, an increase in the ificance of FHB caused by F. However, other species, like Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb.
Burgess, P. In the case of infection of the maize ear with Fusarium spp. Each species of the genus Fusarium has a specific profile of toxic secondary metabolites that have phytotoxic and zootoxic effects [ 3567 ]. The following chemotypes were distinguished in Fusarium spp. Studies in this area have indicated that chemotypes producing deoxynivalenol and 3-ADON and ADON are generally Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota virulent in relation to plants, and those that Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota nivalenol are less virulent [ 686970 ]. There are also opinions that chemotype harmfulness also depends on the host plant [ 6371 ].
Deoxynivalenol-producing chemotypes of F. A chemotype was distinguished consisting of strains capable of producing zearalenone within F. In the populations of individual species, both non-pathogenic strains to plants are found as well as those characterized by high virulence, leading to rapid tissue necrosis, which is often associated with the presence of genes encoding mycotoxin formation in the genome of these fungi [ 447475767778 ].
It has been shown that cereal virulence of many species of the genus Fusarium largely depends on the synthesis of trichothecene compounds, especially deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives and enzymes degrading cell walls of the host plant, mainly cellulases, chitinases and xylanases [ 68697980 ].
The effect of mycotoxins on the body can be chronic chronic toxicity or acute acute toxicity depending on the dose and duration of exposure to toxins [ 81 ]. Disorders in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates occur most often, leading to disorders in the synthesis of nucleic acids, which in turn can contribute to kidney and liver damage, as well as cancer development [ 8283 ].
Economic effects of feed and food contamination with mycotoxins are very ificant, they increase the costs of health care and veterinary care, reduce animal production, and can also lead to the loss of human and animal life. Species of the genus Fusarium most frequently produce trichothecene compounds, zearalenone ZEA and fumonisin in cereal grain Table 1Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota pose the greatest threat to human and animal health [ 848586 ]. Trichothecene compounds are classified as tetracyclic sesquiterpenes [ 87 ].
Sixteen genes involved in the synthesis of trichothecenes have been distinguished, most of them form the group of Tri genes. It contains genes that show a specific effect on trichothecene formation, i. Trichothecene compounds were divided into four main groups A, B, C and D depending on chemical properties functional groups and fungi producing them.Casual Dating Mahto South Dakota
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